Bellingham had put the visitors in front at the Etihad with a header early in the second half.
But City equalised with 10 minutes to go through a superb long-range strike from John Stones.
Inevitably, Erling Haaland had the final say against his former club.
In the final moments of the match, Bellingham clashed with Foden as City looked to see out the win.
After Foden hacked down Dortmund full-back Thomas Meunier near the corner flag, Bellingham rushed to the defence of his teammate by pushing the City forward, who then retaliated.
The two players were quickly split up, with the altercation resulting in a yellow card for Foden and Meunier, who reacted angrily to being fouled.
Fans were quick to react to the scuffle on social media.
“Foden got bodied by Bellingham and started crying,” wrote one fan on Twitter.
“Bellingham would smoke Foden,” added another.
A third wrote: “Bellingham squaring up to Foden? He’s already a Liverpool player in my eyes.”
While another added: “Bellingham and Foden fighting? Brothers we are trying to win a World Cup.”
Foden and Bellingham are set to join up for England duty next week.
Both players are expected to be included in Gareth Southgate’s squad for the upcoming Nations League games against Italy and Germany.